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Gray's Anatomy 38th Edition Pdf 181

Topographic landmarks for the superior orbital fissure are useful for general orientation and approach to the middle fossa, cavernous sinus and orbit. In this study, the microsurgical anatomy and morphometry of the superior orbital fissure and its related structures were examined in 57 disarticulated sphenoid bones, 102 skull bases and 58 adult cadaveric heads. The superior orbital fissure was observed in nine different shapes based on the classification of Sharma et al. (1988), and the most frequently observed was Type VI. The distance from the superomedial to the superolateral edge was measured as 17.33.4 mm on the right side and 16.92.9 mm on the left side, and from the superolateral to the inferior edge as 20.83.9 mm on the right side and 20.13.8 mm on the left side. The distance from the superomedial to the inferior edge of the fissure was measured as 9.52.2 mm on the right side and 92.4 mm on the left side. No right-left differences were observed for these measurements. Measurements regarding the relationship of the oculomotor, trochlear and abducent nerves, the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and the superior orbital vein were performed and topographic aspects of the superior orbital fissure region were described.

gray's anatomy 38th edition pdf 181

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Distortion of the position of the facial nerve due to parotid tumors will also affect the position and anatomy of the marginal mandibular branch. Perhaps one of the most challenging situations is associated with a displaced facial nerve in large or vascular tumors. It is important for the surgeon to maintain a hemostatic field to identify the nerve accurately. The marginal mandibular branch is used frequently as a guide to the main trunk of the facial nerve, but clear guidelines for locating the marginal mandibular branch are often lacking [8].

Although the intraparotid anatomy of the facial nerve has been very well documented, the surgical approaches to the peripheral, extraparotid branches of the facial nerve have not been described as accurately. The direction followed by the facial nerve branches beyond their emergence from the ventral, cephalic and caudal borders of the parotid gland up to the facial muscles has been studied by several anatomists, but so far, no consistent description of them has been given [16].

To describe the normal human pericardial cavity, sinuses, and recesses anatomy we used balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) and T1-weighted MR sequences acquired in five young, healthy subjects and two CT scans acquired in one patient after iatrogenic dissection of a coronary artery occurred during invasive coronary angiography. In addition, we used ex-vivo cross-sectional photographs of the human body provided by the Visible Human Server (VHS), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lousanne (EPFL), Switzerland. We also processed original 3D reconstructions obtained from axial cadaveric sections of the VHS using the Rhinoceros software (version 6.0, McNeel North America, Seattle, WA, USA).

A highly-detailed anatomical comparison between radiologic and cadaveric imaging of the human pericardium provided by the Visible Human Server (VHS) is fundamental for a throughout knowledge of the normal pericardial structures. A fully understanding of pericardial anatomy, including its sinuses and recesses, is important in interpreting CT and MRI imaging in order not to confuse them with pathology.

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